Current Problems in Cardiology, 20150101
Abstract: A growing body of literature has underscored the value of ventilatory gas exchange techniques during exercise testing (commonly termed cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or CPX) and their applications in the management of patients with heart failure (HF). The added precision provided by this technology is useful in terms of understanding the physiology and mechanisms underlying exercise intolerance in HF, quantifying the response to therapy, evaluating disability,
making activity recommendations, and quantifying the response to exercise training. Importantly, a wealth of data has been
published in recent years on the prognostic utility of CPX in patients with HF. These studies have highlighted the concept that indices of ventilatory inefficiency, such as the VE/VCO2slope and oscillatory breathing, are particularly powerful in stratifying risk in HF. This article provides an overview of the clinical utility of CPX in patients with HF, including the applications of ventilatory inefficiency during exercise, the role of the pulmonary system in HF, respiratory muscle performance (RMP), and the application of CPX as part of a comprehensive clinical and exercise test evaluation.